The Gerontologist, Vol 36, Issue 1 70-75, Copyright © 1996 by The Gerontological Society of America
Factors associated with paranoid symptoms in a community sample of older adults
DG Blazer, JC Hays and ME Salive
Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
Symptoms of paranoia were found in 9.5% of a community sample of older
adults in North Carolina. In cross-sectional analyses, these symptoms were
associated most strongly with black race, lower income and education, less
exercise, and more depressive symptoms. In longitudinal analysis, paranoid
symptoms three years following initial interview were predicted by baseline
paranoid symptoms, education and depressive symptoms at the initial
interview. In blacks, paranoid symptoms may represent an appropriate
response to a hostile environment rather than a psychopathic trait.