The Gerontologist
 QUICK SEARCH:   [advanced]


This Article
Right arrow Full Text
Right arrow Full Text (PDF)
Right arrow Alert me when this article is cited
Right arrow Alert me if a correction is posted
Right arrow Similar articles in this journal
Right arrow Similar articles in PubMed
Right arrow Alert me to new issues of the journal
Right arrow Download to citation manager
Citing Articles
Right arrow Citing Articles via Google Scholar
Google Scholar
Right arrow Articles by Cox, E. O.
Right arrow Articles by Seo, H.
Right arrow Search for Related Content
Right arrow PubMed Citation
Right arrow Articles by Cox, E. O.
Right arrow Articles by Seo, H.
The Gerontologist 47:388-397 (2007)
© 2007 The Gerontological Society of America

Strengthening the Late-Life Care Process: Effects of Two Forms of a Care-Receiver Efficacy Intervention

Enid O. Cox, DSW1, Kathy E. Green, PhD2, Katharine Hobart, PhD1, Li-Ju Jang, PhD3 and Honglan Seo, PhD4

Correspondence: Address correspondence to Dr. Enid Cox, Graduate School of Social Work, University of Denver, Denver, CO 80208. E-mail: ecox{at}

Purpose: The primary goal of the Care-Receiver Efficacy Intervention (CREI) was to increase the capacity of cognitively able elderly care receivers to effectively manage their own care and optimize relationships with caregivers. To accomplish this, two forms of the CREI were created: an individual and a small-group form. The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of these two CREI forms when compared to a case management approach.

 Design and Methods: Utilizing a quasi-experimental design, between January 2002 and August 2004 we collected data from 177 elders at three time points: pretest, 2 months following the last session, and 12 months following the last session. The Care-Receiver Efficacy Scale and the Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale–Revised were the outcome measures.

 Results: We found significant effects favoring the CREI for relationship with caregivers, self-care strategies, loneliness, and quality of life. Effects were strongest for the small-group form of the CREI. Overall, the care receivers in both forms of the CREI showed improved self-performance, with small-group CREI participants showing remarkable improvement related to quality of life.

 Implications: The results of this research suggest that care receiver intervention can be effective in improving the care process.

Key Words: Self-efficacy • Care-receiver • Caregiver • Caregiving relationships

All GSA journals Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
Copyright © 2007 by The Gerontological Society of America.